WNV - West-Nile Virus PCR detection kit


Test for the detection of  West-Nile Virus by real time enzymatic gene amplification (RT-PCR)

WNV - West-Nile Virus PCR detection kit

ADIAVETTM WEST-NILE

Ready to use PCR kit
Single-well duplex kit
Endogenous internal control
 
Pathogen
West-Nile Virus - WNV
Target
 5'UTR region
Internal control
Endogenous (beta actin), validates extraction and amplification
Technology
Real Time PCR
Dyes
FAM (WNV)
VIC (internal control)
Storage
-20°C
Samples
Cerebrospinal liquid, tissues (brain, lung…), swabs
Species
Horse and bird
RNA extraction
Silica column
 
 
Reactions / kit
Product number
50 réactions
ADI471-50
100 réactions
ADI471-100
 
Pathology & diagnosis
West Nile Virus (WNV) is a zoonotic mosquito-transmitted arbovirus, member of the genus Flavivirus, in the family Flaviviridae. The genome of WNV is a positive-single stranded RNA whose size is 10.8 kb.
Genetic analysis of WN isolates initially grouped West Nile into two main phylogenetic lineages. Strains from lineage 1 have been restricted to North Africa, Asia, Europe, North and South America as well as Australia. Lineage 2 strains are in turn thought to circulate exclusively in Southern Africa and Madagascar. These investigations subsequently subdivided lineage 1 strains into 3 sub-clades, with clade 1A representing strains from Africa, Asia, the Middle East and America, clade 1B representing Australian strains (Kunjin) and clade 1C (proposed that represents a separate lineage - lineage 5), including isolates from India. Two new lineages have recently been described namely Rabensburg virus (lineage 3), isolated from a Culex mosquito at the border between Austria and the Czech Republic and a proposed lineage 4 strain identified in ticks in the Caucasus. Pathogenic potential is associated with genotype, not with lineage.
WNV is maintained in a mosquito–bird–mosquito transmission cycle. Avian hosts maintain sufficient viremia for the infection of subsequent mosquitoes. Humans and equines are also described as host of WNV. However, they normally fail to generate sufficiently high viremic titers to play a role in the transmission cycle of the virus. WNV has been associated with sporadic disease in small numbers of other species, including squirrels, chipmunks, bats, dogs, cats, white-tailed deer, reindeer, sheep, alpacas, alligator and a harbour seal during intense periods of local viral activity.
Most human infections occur by natural transmission from mosquitoes. There has been confirmed transmission of WNV in humans by blood transfusion, organ transfer and breast milk. Laboratory acquired infections have been also reported.
The incubation period for equine WN encephalitis following mosquito transmission is estimated to be 3–15 days. A fleeting viraemia of low virus titre precedes clinical onset. WN viral encephalitis occurs in only a small per cent of infected horses; the majority of infected horses do not display clinical signs. The disease in horses is frequently characterised by mild to severe ataxia. Additionally, horses may exhibit weakness, muscle fasciculation and cranial nerve deficits. Fever is an inconsistently recognised feature.
WNV was considered non pathogen for birds, until the cases reported in Israel (1998) and United state (1999). The clinical outcome of infection is variable. Birds can show nervous infection. Infection can lead to death.
Numerous laboratory tests are in use for surveillance of WNV in avian carcasses. Targeted tissues include brain, heart, kidney, oropharyngeal swab, and others. Avian mortality surveillance is a key component for tracking the distribution of WNV activity.